The Essential Smartphone Antibacterial App

The Essential Smartphone Antibacterial App

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Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many studies to investigate antimicrobial and antiviral agents. However, the use of any antimicrobial agents must be limited due to their possible toxic or harmful effects. In recent years, due to previous antibiotics’ lesser side effects, plaquenil for sale the use of herbal materials instead of synthetic or chemical drugs is increasing. Herbal materials are found in medicines. Herbs can be used in the form of plant extracts or as their active components. Furthermore, most of the world’s populations used herbal materials due to their strong antimicrobial properties and primary healthcare benefits. For example, herbs are an excellent material to replace nanosilver as an antibiotic and antiviral agent. The use of nanosilver involves an ROS-mediated mechanism that might lead to oxidative stress-related cancer, cytotoxicity, and heart diseases. Oxidative stress further leads to increased ROS production and also delays the cellular processes involved in wound healing. Therefore, existing antibiotic drugs can be replaced with biomaterials such as herbal medicine with high antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activity. This review paper highlights the antibacterial, antiviral, and radical scavenger (antioxidant) properties of herbal materials. Antimicrobial activity, radical scavenger ability, the potential for antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents, and efficacy in eliminating bacteria and viruses and scavenging free radicals in herbal materials are discussed in this review. The presented herbal antimicrobial agents in this review include clove, portulaca, tribulus, eryngium, cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, thyme, pennyroyal, mint, fennel, chamomile, burdock, eucalyptus, primrose, lemon balm, mallow, and garlic, which are all summarized.

Keywords: herbal material, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antimicrobial, antioxidant, medicine applications, antiviral, virucidal

1. Introduction
Due to increasing concerns about the sustainability of human living, the control of the damaging effects of microorganisms is becoming very important. A wide range of microorganisms exist in a biological balance with the human body and its living environments, but an uncontrolled and rapid growth of microbes can lead to some dangerous problems [1,2,3,4]. Antimicrobial agents are used as antibiotic drugs to control cipro 1000 mg online infections in the human body, but they can cause many side effects, especially increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human body [5,6]. ROS are very dangerous to human health and well-being and play a role in producing cancer [7,8,9]; further, they can increase potential health risks [10,11,12]. Figure 1 demonstrates the different antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics for disrupting bacterial cells [13,14]. The herbal materials used as medicinal plants include several types of plants. Many of these herbal materials show medicinal activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. Furthermore, these herbs can play the main role in drug synthesis and development. These materials show a significant role in different biological applications such as plaquenil 400mg without a prescription cancer therapy, cardiovascular disease treatment, neural disease treatment and skin regeneration [15,16,17]. The biomedical applications of these materials are illustrated in Figure 2 [18]. Herbal medicines performed the primary medicinal functions in ancient cultures in Africa, Europe, the Americas, and especially in Asia [19,20,21]. Herbal medicines are the primary medicine to treat infection in some developing countries. The extracts of herbal materials signify continuous attempts to investigate new compounds with potential antibacterial activity [22]. Several studies have shown that different herbal medicines are sources of diverse molecules, many of which exhibit radical scavenger and antimicrobial properties which can defend the human body against pathogens and also cellular oxidation reactions. Therefore, these materials are significant in synthesizing different types of herbal medicine for their antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant potential [23,24,25,26,27]. These diverse molecules can control and inhibit pathogens with low toxicity to cells and are therefore considered as materials for new antimicrobial medicine research. Based on those above control methods for the terrible effect of the rapid growth of bacteria and viruses, many studies have focused on researching antibacterial and antiviral medicines with lower side effects [28,29,30,31].


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